The High Courts are the principal civil courts of original jurisdiction in the state, and can try all offences including those punishable with death. The work of most High Courts consists of Appeals from lowers courts and writ petitions in terms of Article 226 of the Constitution of India. There are 24 High Courts in INDIA.
Let us now take a look at the List of High Courts in India along with their establishment year, jurisdiction , seat , bench and act under which they were established.
|Court Name||Year of Establishment||Act Established||Jurisdiction||Seat||Bench|
|Allahabad High Court||1866||Indian High Courts Act 1861||Uttar Pradesh||Allahabad||Lucknow|
|Chennai High Court||1862||Indian High Courts Act 1861||Pondicherry,
|Chhattisgarh High Court||2000||Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000||Chhattisgarh||Bilaspur|
|Delhi High Court||1966||Delhi High Court Act, 1966||NCT of Delhi||New Delhi|
|Gauhati High Court||1948||Government of India Act, 1935||Arunachal
|Gujarat High Court||1960||Bombay Reorgansisation Act, 1960||Gujarat||Ahmedabad|
|Himachal Pradesh High Court||1971||State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970||Himachal
|Jammu and Kashmir High Court||1928||Letters Patent issued by then Maharaja of Kashmir||Jammu and
|Jharkhand High Court||2000||Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000||Jharkhand||Ranchi|
|Karnataka High Court||1884||Mysore High Court Act, 1884||Karnataka||Bangalore||Dharwad,
|Kerala High Court||1956||States Reorganisation Act, 1956||Kerala,
|Kolkata High Court||1862||Indian High Courts Act 1861||Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
|Madhya Pradesh High Court||1936||Government of India Act, 1935||Madhya Pradesh||Jabalpur||Gwalior, Indore|
|Manipur High Court||2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Manipur||Imphal|
|Meghalaya High Court||2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Meghalaya||Shillong|
|Mumbai High Court||1862||Indian High Courts Act 1861||Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli,
|Odisha High Court||1948||Orissa High Court Ordinance, 1948||Odisha||Cuttack|
|Punjab and Haryana High Court||1947||Punjab High Court Ordinance, 1947||Chandigarh,
|Rajasthan High Court||1949||Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949||Rajasthan||Jodhpur||Jaipur|
|Sikkim High Court||1975||The 36th Amendment to the Indian Constitution||Sikkim||Gangtok|
|Tripura High Court||2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Tripura||Agartala|
|Uttarakhand High Court||2000||Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000||Uttarakhand||Nainital|
Important Terms relating to High Courts in India
Tribunal – A tribunal is a term for any body acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an advocate appearing before a Court on which a single Judge was sitting could describe that judge as ‘their tribunal’.
Permanent Bench – A permanent bench comprises of one or more High Court judges who sit yearlong at a particular location that is different from the permanent seat of the High Court.
Circuit Bench – A Circuit Bench is for territories which are far flung but do not have too many matters to justify a full fledged permanent bench. As a result, once or twice a year, some judges travel to these areas and dispose off all the High Court appeals of that jurisdiction.
Division Bench – In a Division Bench, a case is heard and judged by at least 2 judges.
Full Bench – A Full bench refers to a court of law consisting of a greater-than-normal number of judges.
Few Important Facts about High Courts in India
- The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in the country, established on 2 July 1862.
- The Madras High Court in Chennai, Bombay High Court in Mumbai, Calcutta High Court in Kolkata and Allahabad High Court in Allahabad are the oldest four High Courts in India.
- Three new High Courts were constituted in the northeast — Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura in 2013.
- On March 31, 2017, women created history by heading all the four major and oldest High Courts of India. Bombay HC is headed by Chief Justice Manjula Chellur, Calcutta HC by Chief Justice Nishita Nirmal Mhatre, Madras HC by Chief Justice Indira Banerjee and Delhi HC by Chief Justice G Rohini.
- First female Judge of High Court was Anna Chandy.
- First female Chief Justice of High court is Leila Seth (Himachal Pradesh HC)
- India’s first e-court was opened at High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad in 2016.